The word dagon was the Ugaritic and Hebrew collective noun for grain, and Dagon was worshiped as far back as the earliest days of 2500 BC. , The three most important deities in the Mesopotamian pantheon during all periods were the deities An, Enlil, and Enki.  An was identified with all the stars of the equatorial sky, Enlil with those of the northern sky, and Enki with those of the southern sky. She was also a representation of the crafts of war and combat. Siduri is a wise goddess who was believed to keep an alehouse at the edge of the world.  The effect that seeing a deity's melam has on a human is described as ni, a word for the "physical creeping of the flesh". Gibil imparted wisdom about metallurgy, and many writers describe him as “the god of the forge.” He had a mind so vast that even the other gods were unable to fathom it. Lagamal and Ishmekerab are twin Elamite goddesses who were believed to serve as judges of the dead in the Underworld.  Deities were almost always depicted wearing horned caps, consisting of up to seven superimposed pairs of ox-horns. He rode on a winged dragon called Sirrush, which initially belonged to his father. Ea has associations with magic, incantations, and wisdom, and was important to exorcists and diviners. Nisaba, also known as Nanibgal, was originally a goddess of grain and agriculture. The Egyptian god isis has the same type of symbolism on her crown. This god had a two-edged aspect: he was both the giver and the destroyer. Hegir-Nuna, also known as Gangir, is one of the seven daughters of Baba. Inanna Inanna was the goddess of love and war. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_Mesopotamian_deities&oldid=995895774, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Enlil, later known as Ellil, is the god of wind, air, earth, and storms. Every Mesopotamian city had its own patron god or goddess, who was supposed to protect the city’s people from harm and ensure a good harvest. Tashmet, the Akkadian goddess was his wife.  In some instances, the terms Anunnaki and Igigi are used synonymously. For example, the Sumerian god of the sun Utu became Shamash for the Akkadians. As a storm god, he destroyed life, and as a rain god, he gave life. Mesopotamian religion was polytheistic, thereby accepting the existence of many different deities, both male and female, though it was also henotheistic, with certain Gods being viewed as superior to others by their specific devotees. Geštinanna's name literally means "Wine/vine of the heavens/the god An." Later the Babylonians, Akkadians, Hurrians, and Assyrians also began worshiping him. Ningilin is a deity who was associated with mongooses, which are common throughout southern Mesopotamia. Save my name and email in this browser for the next time I comment. Con: His storms can bring havoc and destruction as well as tend to bring him notoriety. Siyâšum, Narunte, and Niarzina are the three sisters of the Elamite goddess. Uraš is the earliest attested consort of Anu; Zababa is a local god associated with the city of Kish, near Babylon. Erra is a warlike god who is associated with pestilence and violence. They left behind statues in a position of worship, which would pray continually to the gods on their behalf. Where hurricanes and storms were symbols of his anger … Sumugan is an obscure "god of the plain", who is briefly referenced in the Sumerian poem, In Assyrian mythology, Tashmetu is the divine consort of. Pabilshag is a god whose worship is attested from the Early Dynastic Period onwards. Unusually, in the cult of Nanna, the moon was thought to be the father of the sun. The Babylonians also identified him with the planet Mercury.  Many major deities in Sumerian mythology were associated with specific celestial bodies: Inanna was believed to be the planet Venus, Utu was believed to be the Sun, and Nanna was the Moon. ", "Inanna/Ishtar as a Figure of Controversy", "Haya (god); Spouse of Nidaba/Nissaba, goddess of grain and scribes, he is known both as a "door-keeper" and associated with the scribal arts. Ordinary Mesopotamians visited their temples with offerings, such as animals to sacrifice, to please their gods. Birtum is an obscure minor god, the husband of the goddess, The Bull of Heaven is a mythical beast that Ishtar demands from her father Anu in both the Sumerian poem.  During the fourth and final phase, in the first millennium BC, the gods became closely associated with specific human empires and rulers. Top Ancient Mesopotamian Goddesses: Inanna- The Sumerian Goddess of Love, Passion and Procreation: ... short-tempered goddess and is said to be the daughter of Anu the God of the sky. Image Credit: pinterest According to all Mesopotamian religion facts written ever, the goddess Ishtar or Inannawas one of the most prominent deities worshiped by Babylonians as well as Sumerians. Ea, (Akkadian), Sumerian Enki, Mesopotamian god of water and a member of the triad of deities completed by Anu (Sumerian: An) and Enlil.  Similarly, no representations of the Anunnaki as a group have yet been discovered, although a few depictions of its individual members have been identified. Ancient ritual site of a Mesopotamian war god that was used for animal sacrifices 5,000 years ago is uncovered in Iraq. He was the father not only of all the gods but also of evil spirits and demons, most prominently the demoness Nintu is a Sumerian mother goddess associated with childbirth. Atargatis is a Syrian goddess who was worshipped in the early centuries AD. Simut is an Elamite god who serves as a herald. Ninurta, also known as Ningirsu, was a Mesopotamian warrior deity who was worshipped in Sumer from the very earliest times. With this rain, the land bore grain and people were able to feed themselves, so he was also called the god of abundance. According to some stories, Inanna was his twin sister who encompassed several powers, and Sumerian texts show a strong bond between the two. Ninhursag, also known as Damgalnuna and Ninmah, is the Sumerian. Ninkasi is the ancient Sumerian tutelary goddess of beer.  During the third phase, in the second millennium BC, the gods worshipped by an individual person and gods associated with the commoners became more prevalent. In addition, he brought forward the patronage of arts and crafts.  In general, the history of Mesopotamian religion can be divided into four phases. 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